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Reid Hoffman

This Week In Startups - Episode #490
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Background
Reid Hoffman is is an internet entrepreneur, angel investor, venture capitalist and author. He is best known as the Co-Founder and Executive Chairman of LinkedIn.

In addition to his role at LinkedIn, Reid is also a partner at Greylock. Prior to starting LinkedIn, Reid was Executive Vice President at PayPal. 

After the PayPal sale to eBay, he became one of Silicon Valley's most prolific and successful angel investors (and was one of the first investors in Facebook alongside Peter Thiel).

Reid has co-authored two books, his first being The Startup of You, and his most recent being The Alliance: Managing Talent in the Networked Age
Key Takeaways (full notes below) - 4 min read
 
Top Quote:

 "Contrarian and right is how you make great investments."

- Reid Hoffman
 
Key Takeaways:
 
Reid's Books

Reid's book The Start-up of You is for individuals. In a networked age where the pattern is to be the entrepreneur of your own life (which is how you do a modern career).

Reid's new book The Alliance: Managing Talent in the Networked Age is how companies build the right kinds of alliances with their employees who are adaptable employees, and how those alliances come together and become good for both the company and employee.

Reid's History

Before PayPal Reid founded SocialNet, which ended up failing.
  • SocialNet was like Match.com, but as a platform for all kinds of relationships. 
Reid is most interested in designing and building products that improve the human ecosystems to make us better individually and better as a group. 

SixDegrees was a similar service that came out around that time, and was the first site to build membership and a network around it. 

Reid always thought it would take between 3 and 5 companies to be successful because the huge majority of startups fail statistically. 
  • He was upset when SocialNet failed, but he learned a huge number of things and was ready to get back at bat.
On LinkedIn

The LinkedIn public stats are there are over 330 million users globally in every country on earth from high school students to CEOs.

The public filing for LinkedIn revenue was around $1.4 Billion last year. 
  • The idea for LinkedIn came in September of 2000 (as a back-up idea if PayPal failed). 
It was around the idea that everyone should have a public professional identity on the internet to help them with their work and in finding work. 

A classic entrepreneurial impulse is to hold an idea close, and not go tell other people because the idea is so special.
  • That is almost always a mistake.
Reid asked every smart person in his network what they thought about the idea, and over 2/3 of his friends thought LinkedIn was a terrible idea because the product really only gets valuable once there are millions of people in it so you can search for people, find the people you don’t know, etc.  
  • That is one of the reasons it is so useful to go talk to people because they actually defined the challenge for Reid so he focused completely on that. 
To accelerate that process, they invented features (that are the norm today) like the ability to upload your address book and see who else was a user on the platform.

Reid had become a student of virality because of SixDegrees. 

In thinking about the professional public profile platform and what the first source of income for that would be the answer was recruiting because it is important to all companies and is very poorly served right now. 
  • The surprise was how quickly LinkedIn moved to corporate accounts, which is the main source of revenue now. 
On The PayPal Mafia

What made PayPal so successful was Peter and Max were able to hire extremely talented folks with little experience but who were ambitious, as opposed to the classic wisdom of hiring people with 10-20 years of experience. 

Elon Musk is a brilliant man who ignores the word “risk.” He is incredibly smart and he believes in going boldly and taking very broad jumps. 
  • He has the ‘no fear’ gene.  
Peter Thiel opened up his new book Zero to One with a question he asks in interviews:
  • "What do you believe that most people do not believe?’"
Peter takes that question rigorously in everything he does. 

He is the contrarian and does that very well. He does it from the viewpoint of being a public intellectual in trying to get people to open their minds and coming to a perspective of truth. 

Entrepreneurial Paradoxes

Financing strategy is absolutely fundamental.  You can’t just say “I built something good and people will love me and give me money.” 

Also, product distribution is almost always a harder problem than the product itself. 
  • Most people think, “If you build it they will come,” but this is usually not true. 
Reid tries to get entrepreneurs to focus by saying, “If you are not embarrassed by your first release you have released too late.”

Reid's Investment Portfolio

Reid has been a venture capitalist for the past five years with Greylock Partners.

Part of the reason Reid joined Greylock is because they specialize in being operators, and their partners are generally those who have already founded companies.  
  • He also went to Greylock because they partner with entrepreneurs in helping build companies.
Reid invested in the Series B round of Instagram.  
  • Instagram sold to Facebook three days after this investment round.
As an investor, and to be a good partner to the entrepreneurs, you have to work with the entrepreneurs and do what they want. 

Another one of the early deals Reid did at Greylock was an investment in Airbnb.
  • Contrarian and right is how you make great investments.
  • Everyone thought Airbnb was crazy, and 2 minutes in to their pitch Reid knew he was going to make an offer to invest.
Reid also invested alongside Peter Thiel in the first round of Facebook's financing. Sean Parker introduced Reid to Mark Zuckerberg.

Reid’s first impression of Mark was that he was an extremely quiet introvert. 
  • Part of it is because Mark is very thoughtful.
One of the instincts that people tend to have is to not allow silence to grow in a conversation. Mark is a very thoughtful person and was ok with the silence. 

Reid invested in Facebook at a $6 million post-money valuation, and today Facebook is worth $200 billion approximately.
  • Jason mentioned that this is amongst the greatest returns in Silicon Valley history.
On Getting An MBA

In the consumer internet space the value of an MBA degree itself is generally between light and zero. 

If you end up having a good network because of it that can be useful, but the question is could you have gotten that same network by working for really interesting companies instead. 

Problems Society Faces

Elon Musk introduced the term “Robocalypse.” 

A fundamental truth is once you get machine intelligence to the point where it is self-improving at a pace where Moore’s Law is exponential to where it can be re-writing itself and self-improving – you don’t know where that goes.
  • Elon has persuaded Reid that it is worth us paying attention to this, and smart people should be thinking about it.
On Morality, Anonymity, and Technology

Generally speaking Reid is wary of anonymous commentary products (like Secret) because the incentives tend to be how to hurt people versus talking truth. 

The world is better off with a real name social network, owned reputations, owned identities, and owning what we say.
Table of Contents (Full Notes) - 16 min read 

*You can use the table of contents links below to jump to that section only on laptop and desktop.*
Top Show Links

People Companies  Books Miscellaneous
On Reid's Books
The Start-up of You is for individuals. In a networked age where the pattern is to be the entrepreneur of your own life (which is how you do a modern career), this is the subset of advice Reid gives to entrepreneurs.
  • How do you manage your work life and career both in upside, but also flexibility and adaptability to changes.
The Alliance: Managing Talent in the Networked Age is how companies build the right kinds of alliances with their employees who are adaptable employees, and how those alliances come together and become good for both the company and employee.
  • This is a book for managers.
On Reid's History
Reid was born in Stanford Hospital, and is a native to California.
 
His father was an attorney in San Francisco and his Grandfather was the chief DA for Santa Clara. His Great-Grandfather was an LA newspaper man who actually wrote western novels (and was the second best seller after Louis L’amour).
 
Before PayPal Reid founded SocialNet, which ended up failing and they returned the same capital to their investors as they had initially invested.
 
Reid is most interested in designing and building products that improve the human ecosystems to make us better individually and better as a group.
  • That is the idea that got him into software entrepreneurship. 
On SocialNet
SocialNet was like Match.com, but as a platform for all kinds of relationships.
  • Anything from roommates to professional networking to sports.
  • It was generalized matching services.
SixDegrees (which was a similar product) came out just as they were launching SocialNet.
  • When Reid looked at SixDegrees he thought it was brilliant.
SixDegrees was the first site to build membership and a network around it.
 
So if you type someone’s email in, it sent him or her a message asking to be your connection on this service.
  • It was essentially the first “viral loop.” It didn’t have any of the use cases of modern social networks.
The Founder, Andrew Weinreich, said what they really wanted to do was what Friendster and Facebook eventually did, but digital pictures were too difficult to get at the time because there were no digital cameras.
  • You would have had to physically scan a photo in. Some people were scanning photos in, but in very small volumes.
Until you had digital photos and smartphones then you didn’t have the flow of photos to support the use cases.
On SocialNet's Failure
Reid always thought it would take between 3 and 5 companies to be successful because the huge majority of startups fail statistically.
  • Even if you are above average, you can’t bat 1,000.
You need to think about the next possible game move if the business doesn’t work out like your relationship with investors, cofounders and the team you hired, and figure out what you learned.
 
Reid was upset when SocialNet failed, but he learned a huge number of things and was ready to get back at bat.
On LinkedIn
The LinkedIn public stats are there are over 330 million users globally in every country on earth from high school students to CEOs
 
The idea for LinkedIn came in September of 2000.
 
Peter Thiel, Max Levchin, Luke Nosek, and Reid went on an offsite to Reid’s grandparents cabin In Gualala, California where the idea was to fix PayPal because the cost line was exponentiating and the revenue was 0.
 
At they time they were offering free credit card processing with exponentiating transaction volume.
  • The first day of this offsite was about how to fix PayPal (and that decision was “Master Merchant”), and it worked out.
The second day was around if PayPal blows up, what could be next?
 
Reid pitched LinkedIn, in its less developed shape.
 
It was around the idea that everyone should have a public professional identity on the internet to help them with their work and in finding work. 
On Growing LinkedIn
A classic entrepreneurial impulse is to hold an idea close, and not go tell other people because the idea is so special.
  • That is almost always a mistake.
This is a mistake because the actual competitive advantage is not the idea that you have locked away in your closet (which may or may not be accurate), but rather assembling intelligence around a business idea to put it in motion (does this idea work, what is the right team, what are the right learning’s, etc).
 
As an entrepreneur, you shouldn’t publically publish the idea because if you put it up as a blog post nothing will happen.
  • Instead, you should find every smart person you can who will talk to you about the idea and get feedback.
Reid did exactly that with his network and over 2/3 of his friends thought LinkedIn was a terrible idea because the product really only gets valuable once there are a couple million people in it so you can search for people, find the people you don’t know, etc. 
 
The first person won’t join because there is no value to them, but if they do they will invite the second person that they already know, and so there will be no value for either of them.
  • That is one of the reasons it is so useful to go talk to people because they actually defined the challenge for Reid so he focused completely on that.
Reid knew enough people would see the potential for what a public professional identify could mean.
 
If only a small percentage of people were interested in it and started to invite people that could compound to a much large group of users.
 
To accelerate that process, they invented features (that are the norm today) like the ability to upload your address book and see who else was a user on the platform.
 
One of the things they thought was seeing other friends already in the network for a first time user was extremely important.
 
It was not a hidden secret that a professional network as a platform would be a very valuable thing.
 
There were many different companies trying to take a shot at that goal (some of them started before LinkedIn).
  • The fundamental luck was that none of those competitors got to better ideas before Reid and his team did.
That luck is always underrated when entrepreneur’s talk - there are a lot of smart people in the world, and getting to those particular golden ideas first is a point of luck.
 
Reid had become a student of virality because of SixDegrees.
  • Not many people understand virality well, but Reid had a list of all the people who did in 2003, and he learned from all of them (this was less than 20 people at the time).
You could teach a class that is hours long on virality techniques.
  • It is not a simple thing but is a fundamental way of building products on the internet. 
Uploading your address book is one of the tactics LinkedIn used so you know who else is there.
 
Another tactic is time-coefficients. Gaining a new user’s trust for them to upload their address book the day they join will accelerate the growth curve.
  • You need to show enough value-add up front for them to do this the day they join.
On Monetizing LinkedIn
The public filing for LinkedIn revenue was around $1.4 Billion last year.
  • There is a lot to it getting so successful including hard work, skill sets, and luck.
When LinkedIn won the HBS Company of the year award, one of the investors asked to do the introduction mostly because the Series A deck that LinkedIn had presented was almost exactly what the product ended up being.
  • This is pretty rare.
In thinking about the professional public profile platform and what the first source of income for that would be the answer was recruiting because it is important to all companies and is very poorly served right now.
 
The idea of being able to browse candidate’s profiles and view their resumes online was the big paradigm shift that this product created.
  • This part of the LinkedIn product went exactly to plan.
The surprise was how quickly LinkedIn moved to corporate accounts, which is the main source of revenue now.
 
Initially Reid and his team were building the site for individuals and individual hiring managers, but companies started asking very early to issue a purchase order for a corporate product.
  • At that time there was no product for a company.
Reid and his team hired a salesperson to just go talk to the companies and see what the demand is.
  • They came back and said there was a ton of demand.
Now there is the LinkedIn Talent Solutions product, which allows for collaboration and sharing within a company and became the surprisingly early addition to LinkedIn’s revenue stream.
  • Jason mentioned that it was cheap from a recruiting standpoint- around $500/month. Even for small companies $6,000 a year on recruiting is not much. 
The advice that Reid gives consumer internet entrepreneurs is to focus initially on the product distribution.
  • How to get to 1 million users, 10 million users, 100 million users, etc.
That does not mean to ignore the business model.
  • Generic internet ads are not great, so if you are going to do ads, you need to think of something unique and different.
  • You may do very little as you are building, but you need to have it in mind all along.
On The PayPal Mafia
What made PayPal so successful was Peter and Max were able to hire extremely talented folks with little experience but who were ambitious, as opposed to the classic wisdom of hiring people with 10-20 years of experience.
 
PayPal got high quality people who were able to learn intensely and fast.
  • This is a valuable thing to stack massively in a company. 
Peter and Max did this style of hiring for 98% of PayPal.
 
The other attributes were that it was an intense short run where eBay bought it, and there were a lot of young people who started to get some assets but were still very hungry.
 
Silicon Valley had also gone crazy because everyone was running to the new technology types, and there were so many investors who moved on from the consumer internet space.
 
The PayPal mafia group saw this as an opportunity to now collaborate together.
 
Now there was a very dense network between them with talent, money, knowledge, and sharing of information. 
 
You always have to think about who you are competing with. Peter, Max, and Reid are highly competitive people, but they aren’t competing with each other.
  • Sometimes you are better off being allies and working through any competitive edge that exists.
For example, Reid called Max and Peter telling them they need to start paying attention to Bitcoin (Reid has invested in Xapo founded by Wences Casares). 
On Elon Musk
During the time that Elon left PayPal there was a power struggle.
 
Elon was a strong believer that the whole system should move to .net while PayPal was currently running on UNIX and Solaris.
  • Of the many great ideas in his career, that was not one.
  • Elon is very intellectually rigorous so he actually may still defend the idea of .net to this day.
This is all water under the bridge.
 
Elon is a brilliant man who ignores the word “risk.” He is incredibly smart and he believes in going boldly and taking very broad jumps.
  • He has the ‘no fear’ gene.  
When you look at SpaceX and talk about competing with national governments, entrenched unions, government purchasing, etc. most entrepreneurs would say that seems really scary and would do something else. 
  • Elon says, “I can do that because this is how the world should be.”
What is most impressive is that he seems to have actually done it.

The thing about genius and madness, it is how much can you pull it off?
 
One of the things you learn is how to make your problem simpler, and software is easier than Tesla and SpaceX (and software is already hard as it is). 
  • SpaceX and Tesla are hard science problems.
Elon had the attitude that yes it would be hard, but he could do it. 

You may think if he was successful once that it could be due somewhat to luck, but he has been successful two times solving hard science problems so obviously this is not luck.
  • Jason mentioned that Elon has also had his hands on SolarCity.
Elon was an investor and the Chairman of SolarCity.
On Peter Thiel
Peter opened up his new book Zero to One with a question he asks in interviews:
  • "What do you believe that most people do not believe?"
It depends on what context you are looking at but, for example, Reid would say that governments and societies can do things proactively together to promote entrepreneurship. 
  • The classic Silicon Valley point of view is “just get out of the way.”
Peter takes that question rigorously in everything he does.
 
He looks for things that most people actually disagree with but he is right about, and it is really important.
 
He is the contrarian and does that very well. He does it from the viewpoint of being a public intellectual in trying to get people to open their minds and coming to a perspective of truth.
 
He puts himself out there with these viewpoints.
  
However, Reid and Peter do disagree on fundamentally whether or not there is an entity known as society, and what the attributes are that apply to it if so.
 
Peter’s theory of property is a physical relationship or ownership. Reid’s theory of property is a social relationship - there is a set of social rules governing how you can treat or handle a piece of property.
  • This difference leads to different views on taxes, moral responsibilities etc.
It comes down to the fundamental question of is there a society, and do we have social obligations because we are part of a tribe/region/company aside from whether you signed any contract, etc.
On Entrepreneurial Paradoxes
There are many paradoxes in entrepreneurship. You have to think about the long-term and the short-term at the same time.
 
People say not to focus on the financing strategy, but on the other hand part of what you are doing on your way to the long-term strategy is going through a lot of short-term hops.
 
With each round of financing that you are doing you should be thinking about what the next round of financing will look like because you are doing this island-hopping towards your objective.
 
Financing strategy is absolutely fundamental. You can’t just say “I built something good and people will love me and give me money.”
  • You should be thinking about relationships with VCs and financiers early, and meeting with them before you get into the meat of things.
Also, product distribution is almost always a harder problem than the product itself.
 
Most people think, “If you build it they will come”, but this is usually not true.
 
Most people are not good at predicting a product because for consumer internet timing really matters. 
  • This is why Reid tries to get entrepreneurs to focus by saying, “If you are not embarrassed by your first release you have released too late.”
You want to get the minimum viable product out, and then learn and iterate. 
 
The second part is focusing on how your product is going to get distributed. There is a ton of product X, so you have to figure out how people will encounter it in increasing scale.
 
It has to be a great product (they need to be surprised and delighted), but if people can’t encounter it, it doesn’t matter how great the product is.
 
In order to surprise and delight your users the product has to be categorically different than everything that exists.
  • You need to think about that in terms of product differentiation.  
On Reid's Investment Portfolio
Reid has been a venture capitalist for the past 5 years, and invested in the B round of Instagram (which was the same round as Sequoia). 
  • Instagram sold to Facebook three days after this investment round.
Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger knew there was a high likelihood that they were going to sell Instagram, but did not know for sure.
 
They decided to proceed on the investment side. Mark Zuckerberg made double the offer over the weekend, and Reid and the other investors doubled their money.
 
As an investor, and to be a good partner to the entrepreneurs, you have to work with the entrepreneurs and do what they want.
 
One of the places where entrepreneurs and investor interests partially diverge is on whether or not you should go long.
  • The entrepreneur usually thinks the short-term acquisitions are a win, but the investors get their huge returns from companies going long.
The advice to Systrom and Krieger was to really consider all of their options, and do what is best.
 
You have to handle those conversations by really trying to partner with the entrepreneur and explaining to them all of their options.
  • You help them understand what the opportunities look like, but after that its really up to them.
This is the same philosophy Greylock Partners has.
 
It would have depended on how things worked out, but Instagram would certainly be worth multiple billions today.
  • You have to know what the monetization and growth rates would look like today.
Part of the reason these messaging services have higher valuations is that they are very strategic assets in nature.
 
The way these apps become successful is when the bigger companies look at them and think that their success over the next 5 to 10 years will need to leverage these strategic apps/companies.
 
For example, owning a messaging client on the shift to mobile or payment assets (PayPal to eBay for example).
 
When you are in-between the Microsoft and Google competition, you are very valuable.
 
All of these valuations are based on where this business will be in 5-10 years, not based on their current financials. 
  • It is what you are anticipating this asset growing in to, and how it helps the bigger company continue to grow.
  • That is the thing that creates these valuations.
On Being A Venture Capitalist
Part of the reason Reid joined Greylock is because they specialize in being operators and their partners are generally those who have already founded companies. 
  • Everyone at Greylock has been an operating executive from small to large scale. 
He also went to Greylock because they partner with entrepreneurs in helping build companies.
 
Reid continues to spend a lot of time at LinkedIn, but when he finds a company that is very interesting to invest in, he will spend time doing that. 
On Mark Zuckerberg
Sean Parker introduced Reid to Mark.
 
Sean, Reid, Peter Thiel, and Matt Cohler all met and Reid suggested that Peter lead the round with Facebook, and then Reid would follow it because Peter could be the board member (which would alleviate any concerns of conflict of interest with Reid being at LinkedIn).
 
Reid’s first impression of Mark was that he was an extremely quiet introvert.
  • Part of it is because Mark is very thoughtful.
One of the instincts that people tend to have is to not allow silence to grow in a conversation. Mark is a very thoughtful person and was ok with the silence.
  • Since then he has gotten much better in this area in becoming more of a leader.
Mark is definitely a learning machine. He constantly asks questions, which is a model that everyone should follow.
 
One of the problems with looking at him in terms of one of the most successful entrepreneurs of all time is the success bias.
 
Almost universally, the top people had the hard work, skill, strategy, and luck to make it through the minefield.
 
Within a few meetings Reid noticed he was product oriented, strategic, and a learning machine.
 
The early growth of Facebook had nothing to do with growth hacking.
 
Instead it was that the product was so valuable on college campuses that they turned it on, and then 6 weeks later 80% of college students were logging into it multiple times a day.
 
Reid invested in Facebook at a $6 million post-money valuation, and today Facebook is worth $200 billion approximately.
  • Jason mentioned that this is amongst the greatest returns in Silicon Valley history.
On Airbnb
One of Reid’s earliest investments at Greylock was Airbnb.
 
Contrarian and right is how you make great investments. 
 
Airbnb believed people have this asset of their real estate, and that asset could be very valuable to them and a traveler.
  • Most people thought they were crazy because they wondered who would want to let someone else in their home.
But Airbnb had real identities, identity networks to get validation, and massive needs on both sides.
  • Airbnb said this is the way the world should be.
2 minutes in to their pitch, Reid knew he was going to make an offer to invest.
On Internet Bubbles
  • Jason mentioned that both him and Reid lived through the boom and bust of 1995, 2000, and 2008.
The thing that is different now than the internet bust is that now it is cheaper to do all of the hardware equipment.
  • There are a lot of open source libraries, capital, and a lot of ready-to-hand business models (ad networks, etc).
You also have the general increase of the internet on mobile and massive connected audience bases.
 
The things that are similar are that you have a whole bunch of people who are looking at the internet as a gold rush.
 
Everyone is looking for a career-starting opportunity and going and getting an MBA to try and do it, which generally speaking is a terrible idea.
On Getting An MBA
In the consumer internet space the value of an MBA degree itself is generally between light and zero.
 
If you end up having a good network because of it that can be useful, but the question is could you have gotten that same network by working for really interesting companies instead.
  • However, if the only way you can get to Silicon Valley is to go to Stanford GSB that can be an effective way of “onboarding”. 
Generally, from an entrepreneurial perspective, it is much better to get in to the workflow instead, and go to where the networks are most dense.
 
The biggest mistake Reid made in his own career as far as decisions was deciding if he was going to be a product manager that he needed to go learn skills.
 
It is really just about getting in the building at one of the fast growing futuristic companies and making the connections (for Reid this would have been Netscape).
 
Figure out how to get connected to the networks.
  • Networks are what amplifies your learning, gives you the access to opportunity, and gives the information and intelligence in order to know what to do.
On Problems Society Faces
The last 60-70 years (post WWII) have been an extraordinary period in history.
 
There has been more trade than war, more prosperity, technological innovation, social progress, women’s rights, diversity rights, life expectancy increases, etc.
 
The challenge is to keep that going along with a good healthy balance in society.
 
You want a broad based meritocracy, a social net, and how to make technology mostly good.
 
Elon Musk introduced the term “Robocalypse.”
 
Reid has talked to Elon about this, and Elon is worried about having a global threat from Artificial Intelligence, and he is serious about this.
 
A fundamental truth is once you get machine intelligence to the point where it is self-improving at a pace where Moore’s Law is exponential to where it can be re-writing itself and self-improving – you don’t know where that goes.
  • This is a complete unknown.
The question is will we have Artificial Intelligence 20 years or 3,000 years from now.
  • Those are two completely different answers.
Elon has persuaded Reid that it is worth us paying attention to this, and smart people should be thinking about it.
On Morality, Anonymity, and Technology
Generally speaking Reid is wary of anonymous commentary products (like Secret) because the incentives tend to be how to hurt people versus talking truth.

There are many good things about anonymity, and in many contexts people should have the right to assert it (like Mozilla with private browsing).
 
On the other hand, as you get to a much more networked world there is value in getting to a better system by giving up some anonymity.
  • The world is better off with a real name social network, owned reputations, owned identities, and owning what you say.
There is a lot of complexity in this issue, but the essential insight of how the internet moved from cyberspace to something that is really valuable to us is participating with your real identity - which then helps your real life.
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