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Welcome to the July edition of the Danley Newsletter.  At Danley, we are very proud of the fact that our speakers are made in America.  As we celebrate Independence Day, we want to thank all of those who have served our country to preserve our freedom.  Happy Fourth of July from Danley Sound Labs
Thanks to everyone who came to see us at InfoComm '19.  It was great to make new friends and catch up with old ones.  As usual, the Danley demo room was the place to be during the show!  If you missed out, make your plans to be in Las Vegas next year. 
The Pablo Center at the Confluence is a fine arts center with grand aspirations. Situated at the confluence of the Chippewa and Eau Claire Rivers in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, the 143,000 square-foot space includes a 1,200-seat proscenium theater, the 400-seat JAMF black-box theater, five flexible rehearsal rooms & galleries, and a light, sound, and video production lab, among many other rooms. One publication described The Pablo Center at the Confluence as the center of gravity for a growing orbit of arts and cultural institutions in the northwestern Wisconsin city of 65,000 residents and home to the University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire. AV integration firm Camera Corner Connecting Point (CCCP) of Green Bay, Wisconsin assisted in the design and installation of the center’s audio and video systems, which include over sixty Danley Sound Labs loudspeakers and subwoofers powered by Danley’s multi-channel DNA amplifier/DSPs.

The Pablo Center hired Threshold Acoustics, of Chicago, Illinois, to handle the acoustic and sound system design for the two larger spaces in the building – the proscenium theater and the JAMF black box theater. They hired CCCP to design AV systems for all the other rooms in the building, as well as the video systems. “The practice spaces didn’t have any particular loudspeaker manufacturer specified, but when they asked us to run the numbers on filling them with products from the proscenium theater’s loudspeaker manufacturer, it was way over budget,” said Scott Tomashek, director of AV design and engineering for CCCP. “I explained that Danley would be a great option. People have this idea that Danley boxes are super expensive, but they’re not. They deliver state-of-the-art performance at a price that would allow the Pablo Center to more than meet their performance specifications, which required both volume and critical-listening fidelity.”

Since hearing is believing, Tomashek suggested a demo, and Jason Anderson, executive director of the Pablo Center at the Confluence, agreed. Don Ludwig of Ludwig Marketing, Danley’s representative in the upper Midwest, brought a Danley SM96 loudspeaker and a Danley TH118 subwoofer for the demo. “We were able to fly the system, and it wasn’t long before Jason was completely convinced,” Tomashek said. “After that, we just hung out and enjoyed listening to tracks we like on the system. Jason used to be the production manager of Grammy-winning band Bon Iver and had heard their recordings literally thousands of times on different systems. He was amazed to hear details in the recording on the demo Danley system that he had never heard before. It was a real credit to Danley fidelity and an immediate selling point.”

Each of the five rehearsal spaces uses four Danley SM96 loudspeakers – one in each corner – for mains and a single Danley TH112 subwoofer. Four-channel Danley DNA 10k4 Pro amplifiers drive the loudspeakers and subwoofers. “Using the Danley amps made the setup and commissioning easier due to built-in DSP presets for the various Danley models,” Tomashek said. “The Danley hardware made it easy to hang the speakers off the pipe grid in these spaces. I worked with local fabricators to make custom rigging plates to suspend the subwoofers from the pipe grid as well.”

Given Anderson’s new enthusiasm for Danley, he and the team from Threshold agreed with Tomashek’s suggestion to switch the JAMF black box theater over to Danley as well. “Since it’s a black box theater, we fitted the speakers with clamps to allow them to be reconfigured for different shows and applications,” he said. “A total of eight Danley SM96s are dedicated to the JAMF along with four Danley TH112 subwoofers and four Danley SHMicros. All are powered with Danley DNA 10K4 Pro amplifiers.” A Yamaha CL3 digital console serves as the system’s nerve center and feeds the Danley amplifiers via Dante. Aaron Johnson, a consultant with Threshold Acoustics, tuned the system, starting from the Danley presets that come with the Danley amplifiers.

The Pablo Center’s light, sound, and video production lab includes “more Danley boxes than would seem reasonable given its size,” in Tomashek’s words, a fact that reflects the flexibility necessary for such a space. There are four Danley SH60 loudspeakers, four Danley THmini subwoofers, and sixteen Danley SHMicros, all flexibly powered by six 4-channel Danley DNA 10k4 Pro amplifiers. “They’re going to be teaching sound, lighting, and video design, and plenty more in the lab,” Tomashek said. “The DSP in the Danley amplifiers is extremely flexible and will allow them to make any scenario happen. All the Danley SHMicros can be used as effects speakers… or really whatever they want. They could even do high-dimension surround sound systems.”

He continued, “Danley support was extremely helpful during the installation process. We immediately got someone knowledgeable on the phone to handle the small issues that pop up during an install of this size. Danley has been a great partner throughout the process and we look forward to doing more projects with them in the future.”

James Clerke Maxwell

By: Professor Doug Jones

This month we are meeting a man who many of you probably never heard of.  His name is, in fact, remembered as a compound unit in the CGS (centimeter, gram, second) system of measurement.  The maxwell (Mx) is a unit for measuring magnetic flux.  However, James Clerk Maxwell’s contribution to science deserves far more recognition than to simply lend his name to a relatively obscure unit of measure. As can be seen in the time line, Maxwell was a contemporary of Faraday, Henry and Hertz.  

To attempt to put some perspective on Maxwell’s place in the scientific community, consider these quotes. “One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell.” Albert Einstein.

When Einstein was asked if he stood on the shoulders of Isaac Newton, he replied: “No, I stand on Maxwell’s shoulders.”  Richard Feynman, one of the 20th century’s greatest physicists, said, “…the great transformations of ideas come very infrequently… we might think of Newton’s discovery of the laws of mechanics and gravitation, Maxwell’s theory of electricity and magnetism, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and… the theory of quantum mechanics.”    The reader may recall that a few months ago in the story about Michael Faraday we noted that Feinstein had photographs of three scientists in his office, Newton, Maxwell, and Faraday.
The internet is one of the mixed blessings of the modern age.  Although it is replete with utter nonsense and useless “information,” occasionally one finds a gem.  One can download the book, The Life of James Clerk Maxwell, in its entirety for free!      This work was written by Campbell and Garnett and was published in 1882, just two years after Maxwell’s death. In it, we are able to get a glimpse of the life of James Maxwell written by his contemporaries, and in the case of Campbell, a lifelong friend.
Unlike many of the other scientists we have met in this series, Maxwell was born into a life of privilege.  His father, John Clerk Maxwell, was a lawyer and his mother, Francis Cay, was also from a family of lawyers.  James Maxwell’s paternal uncle was a Baronet.  James was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on June 13, 1831.  It seems that as a child, James was intensely curious about everything.  He was constantly asking “show me how it doos” and “what’s the go of that”.  His father John delighted in explaining to the 4-year-old as much as he could.  It is said that later in life the roles reversed and James took great pleasure in explaining things to his father. His Aunt, Jane Cay said remembering James as a child, “It was humiliating to be asked so many questions one could not answer by a child”.   A few years later when James was 6, he went to a dance, and instead of watching the dancing, he was fascinated by the bow being drawn across the strings of the violin, and determined to figure out “the go of that.”  He was also fascinated with color.  When he was told that various objects were red or blue, he would not accept this at face value, but ask, “how d’ye know it’s blue?”   

His mother was his first teacher, which was not unusual in Victorian times.  She continually challenged James to “Look up through Nature to Nature’s God.”   Young James had a prodigious memory. At age 8 he could recite all 176 verses of Psalm 119.  By age 14 Maxwell had memorized the entire Bible.  Sadly, his mother Francis died of cancer when James was 8. After his mother’s death, James was sent to a very good school, the Edinburgh Academy, but it was a struggle for young James who was far too curious for the confines of proper school. Even with his struggles at the Academy, he managed to write his first scientific paper at age 14.  It was titled Oval Curves and was presented at the Royal Society by a professor at the University of Edinburgh as James was thought to be too young to present the paper himself. 

At 16 Maxwell left the Academy and joined the University of Edinburgh.  He continued to write papers on mathematics and geometry and had two of them presented before the Royal Society, again by others because of his age.  At age 19 Maxwell moved to Cambridge University and continued his studies of mathematics and physics.  At age 24 Maxwell won the Smith’s Prize for theoretical physics and mathematics.  The next year he was awarded the Straiton Gold Medal in mathematics and was appointed the Chair of Physics at the University of Aberdeen.  
While at Aberdeen, Maxwell became fascinated with a problem that scientists for hundreds of years had studied to no avail; how could Saturn’s rings remain stable and not fall apart.  In 1859, at age 28, Maxwell published,  On the Stability of the Motion of Saturn’s Rings, and won the Adams prize for being the first one to solve the problem. He calculated that the only way the rings could possibly remain stable was if they were comprised of individual particles, each in their own orbit of Saturn.  Over 150 years later, the Voyager satellite confirmed Maxwell’s theory. 

In 1860, Maxwell moved to London and took a position at Kings College. His years at Kings College would prove to be his most productive.  In 1861, as a result of his life-long fascination with color, Maxwell produced the world’s very first color photograph, an image of tartan cloth.  But his most profound contribution came a few years later when Maxwell published, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.   In this work, physicist Maxwell took the discoveries of Oersted and Faraday and developed the very first unified theory of why and how electricity and magnetism behaved.  He was the first to determine that there must be electromagnetic waves and that light was one part of the electromagnetic spectrum.   He developed a series of twenty equations which were then expressed in the form of what are now his four famous Maxwell Equations, considered by many physicists today to be the most elegantly beautiful equations ever devised.  When they were first published in 1865 however, very few people understood their significance.  Twenty years later, Heinrich Hertz proved experimentally that electromagnetic waves existed and fourteen years later Marconi was broadcasting radio waves across the Atlantic Ocean.

This was certainly an achievement of a lifetime, but Maxwell continued to contribute ground breaking theories, like his Kinetic Theory of Gasses. Maxwell figured out that the temperature of a gas is fully dependent on the speed of its individual atoms.  From this he determined that the Second Law of Thermodynamics must be a statistical law, not a mechanical one.  His Kinetic Theory of Gasses formulated the basis for statistical physics, which opened the door to quantum physics.

Maxwell also was the first to develop mechanical analogies of electrical behavior.  He was the first, for example, to describe voltage as a force.

Maxwell was a man of great faith, which he constantly examined and re-examined.  To him, his faith was a dynamic thing, like a field which must be continually “ploughed up” and turned over for examination. His knowledge of the Bible in his youth was not merely a rote memorization. The words had sunk far deeper than most realized.  Evidence of his evangelical faith is sprinkled throughout his correspondence. Many of his letters and poems were preserved in The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. 

James Clerk Maxwell died in 1879 at age 48.  His mother died at the same age from the same disease.

Finally, another quote from Richard Feynman:  
“From a long view of the history of mankind – seen from, say, ten thousand years from now – there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell’s discovery of the laws of electrodynamics.”

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