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With low temperatures in the 20's, we here at the Danley home office are searching for spring.  The blooming trees and flowers tell us that it isn't far away.  Meanwhile, Danley loudspeakers continue to bring new life to venues with old, worn out sound systems, as well as brand new facilities.  See one of those stories below.  You'll also meet another new Danley employee, as well as catch up on the news from Danley.  Happy Spring (eventually!)
New Position Assignment – Country Manager:

Nicholas Loe has been appointed as Country Manager–PacRim/Asia. This newly created position will allow us to better serve and grow our business partnerships in the Asia PacRim Region. “Nick comes to us with a lot of management experience in both contracting and distribution in the Pro A/V industry. He is an incredibly energetic and positive person that has a strong understanding of what it takes to sell and support our product line” says JP Parker, Director of Sales.

Danley at CinemaCon 2019

Give your patrons what they want: an audio experience that will keep them coming back to the movies time and time again.  Danley Sound Labs makes it possible.  Our clients include the largest, most creative shows in Las Vegas, the most popular family theme parks in Florida, and numerous stadiums, theaters, clubs and arenas around the world.  Small rooms to massive stadiums, we've covered them all.  A noted director of entertainment technology for a large midwestern cinema chain said, "I’ve been working with cinema sound for over thirty years, and I’ve never experienced anything like a Danley Sound Labs system.” What Danley has done for them, we can do for you.  Visit us at Booth 2807A at CinemaCon in Las Vegas, April 1-4 and let us share with you how Danley Sound Labs can create an unforgettable experience for your customers. 
DANLEY AT THE MOVIES: STARRING DANLEY CINEMA LINE OF SPEAKERS & SUBS AND FEATURING EMAGINE NOVI’S 92’ x 48’ SCREEN

Emagine Entertainment operates innovative movie theaters throughout the Midwest, and it recently completed a five-million-dollar renovation of its Emagine Novi location in the northwest suburbs of Detroit, Michigan. A huge part of that renovation included the merger of former theaters thirteen and fourteen to provide space for the state of Michigan’s largest screen and 320 luxury reclining chairs from which to enjoy it. In addition to a state-of-the-art Christie laser projector that perfectly illuminates every square inch of the 92’ x 48’ screen, Emagine opted to support the visuals with a 64-channel Dolby Atmos system led by five Danley SH96HO point-source loudspeakers and a powerful Danley BC418 subwoofer.
 
David Zylstra, chief technical officer at Emagine Entertainment, collaborated with Tom Ruhling, director of entertainment technology, to design the technical aspects of the new theater. “Danley was an excellent fit for the situation,” Ruhling said. “Given the size of the space, the typical pro cinema loudspeakers were a bit too light for the task at hand. Line arrays, in addition to being way too expensive, would have given us headaches with comb filtering and smearing. In contrast, Tom Danley’s patented technologies deliver true point-source output with incredible fidelity and almost undetectable distortion, despite their ability to produce impressive SPLs. Importantly, Danley boxes are fairly priced, especially when you consider how few boxes are needed compared to a line array.”
 
In anticipation of the big renovation at Emagine Novi, Ruhling installed three Danley SH96HO loudspeakers at the Emagine Canton location a year ago to give them a real field test. “That has been my preferred house to see a movie ever since,” he said. “I can hear every small detail, but there’s tons of punch when it’s needed. I recently watched 10 Cloverfield Lane, which features a car wreck. Unfortunately, I’ve been in a few car wrecks myself, and I have to say, it felt real. It was breathtaking. I’ve been working with cinema sound for over thirty years, and I’ve never experienced anything like a Danley system.”
 
The new system at Emagine Novi uses five Danley SH96HOs for the main left, left-center, center, center-right, and right loudspeakers. A Danley BC418 subwoofer, with its components arranged to provide directivity, provides substantial low-end support. “The Danley BC418 has the ability to shake the entire complex from end to end,” Ruhling said. “Whereas conventional subwoofers have 8 – 15% distortion beyond 60Hz, Tom Danley’s patented design makes distortion almost non-existent. It’s hard to put into words, but it’s so honest. It’s like hearing the bass from my high-end monitors at home… expanded out to a 320-seat room!” QSC amplifiers, processing, and surround sound speakers complete the system.
 
In addition to a great sound system, Ruhling was impressed by the support he received from Danley Sound Labs. “Whereas most other companies tend to disappear after the purchase has been made, Danley has been with us every step of the way and continue to support us,” he said. “It started with the Canton system; a Danley engineer flew in to assist with commissioning. At Novi, Doug Jones came out early in the process, and after everything was installed, Skip Welch joined Doug and came out to hear the system and give it a final tuning. Throughout the process, Skip was always at the ready to answer a question, and he even recommended a less expensive loudspeaker than the one we had been considering because it fit the application better. I really couldn’t ask for a better partner!”
 
The new screen at Emagine Novi opened with a showing of the latest installment in the Star Wars series: The Last Jedi.

Wallace Clement Sabine
Prof.  Doug Jones
 
This month we are meeting a man whose name is known to all in the practice of acoustics and should, in my opinion, be known by the broader community of audio professionals as well.  W.C. Sabine is essentially the father of modern acoustics.  Sabine was born in 1868 and, as you can see from the timeline, he was a contemporary of our last subject, Alexander G. Bell. Wallace Sabine was born in Richwood, Ohio in June of 1868.  His full name, Wallace Clement Ware Sabine was a tribute to his ancestry, one Scotch, one Dutch, one English, and one French. One biographer, a Mr. Edwin Hall, writing a biographical memoir five years after Sabine's death, spent a considerable amount of time exploring Sabine's genealogical roots much the same way that Bell’s biographers did.  But instead of finding a shared passion for a particular discipline as in Bell’s case, Hall was looking for a way to explain Sabine’s temperament.
 
“To those who know Sabine well this brief family history is deeply significant. Gentleness, courtesy, rectitude, untiring energy, fixity of purpose that was like the polarity of a magneẗ, all these traits we find in him. It is interesting and impressive to see how the individualism and stern conscience that made his ancestors on the one side Quakers in England and, probably, on the other side Protestants in France, found expression in him, under changed intellectual conditions. He was of the very stuff of which martyrs are made; in facẗ, he died a martyr to his sense of duty, but, with an austerity of morals and a capacity for devotion which none of his conspicuously religious forefathers could have surpassed, he held aloof, silently but absolutely, from all public profession of religious creed, and he took small part in religious observances.”[1]

Hylas Sabine and Anna Ware had two children: a daughter Annie and a son Wallace.  Not much in known about Annie other then she attended MIT, which in the latter part of the 1800s was a big deal.  The first woman to attend MIT enrolled in 1870. Wallace earned his BA degree from Ohio State at age 18 then went on to study mathematics and physics at Harvard. He earned his Master’s degree in 1888 at age 20.  It is interesting to note that he never became a candidate for a Ph.D.  He was too occupied in teaching and mentoring students, and helping them develop research strategies.  In 1895, he was made an assistant professor of physics. Wallace Sabine could have easily faded into obscurity if it were not for an architectural disaster.

The Fogg Art Museum was completed in 1895.  Part of this project included an auditorium, which “was monumental in its acoustic badness”[2].  Remember, in 1895 there was no “science of acoustics” per se. A few scientists, including Joseph Henry (covered in Jan 2019), had dabbled in trying to understand the behavior of sound but made very little headway.  The architect of the Fogg Museum, including the auditorium, was Richard Morris Hunt, one of the most eminent architects of his day.  The story is told of a conversation between Hunt and a Mr. Beecher.  

Mr. Beecher; “Mr. Hunt, how much do you know about acoustics?”  
Mr. Hunt; "As much as anyone, Mr. Beecher.”
Mr. Beecher; “How much is that?”
Mr. Hunt; “Not a damned thing”
Mr. Beecher; “I think you are right.”[3]
 
 
The president of Harvard, Charles Eliot, was not pleased that this very valuable lecture hall was completely unusable.  The reverberation in the room was so intense that one could not present a lecture that could be understood.  He picked Sabine to study the problem and come up with a practical solution so that the room could be used.  Eliot suggested that Sabine come up with some sort of quantitative measure of acoustical quality so that the room could be compared to the very successful and acoustically excellent Sanders Theater.  Then Fogg could be altered so it would match the Sanders Theater.  Here, in Sabine's own words, is his statement about the task he was given.

“No one can appreciate the condition of architectural acoustics – the science of sound as applied to buildings – who has not with a pressing case in hand – sought through the scattered literature for some safe guidance. Responsibility in a large and irretrievable expenditure of money compels a careful consideration and emphasizes the meagerness and inconsistency of the current suggestions. Thus, the most definite and often repeated statements are such as the following, that the dimensions of a room should be in the ratio of 2:3:5, or according to some writers, 1:1:2 and others 2:3:4. It is probable that the basis for these suggestions is the ratios of the harmonic intervals in music, but the connection is untraced and remote. Moreover, such advice is rather difficult to apply….. “ One writer who had seen the Mormon Temple recommended that all auditoriums should be elliptical. Sanders Theater is by far the best auditorium in Cambridge and is semicircular in general shape but with a recess that makes it almost anything: and, on the other hand, the lecture room in the Fogg Art Museum is also semicircular, indeed was modeled after the Sanders Theater and it was the worst.  But Sanders Theater is in wood and the Fogg Lecture room is plaster on tile; one seizes this only to be immediately reminded that Sayles Hall in Providence is largely lined with wood and is bad….” [4]

Although the language usage is a bit difficult for modern readers, you can easily sense the frustration that Sabine felt.  There was a lot of money at stake.  All of the resources he found were at worst contradicting each other, at best worthless. He was going to have to come up with something completely new.  It is significant that earlier researchers, like Joseph Henry, decided not to trust their ears, and tried unsuccessfully to make sound visible in order to study it.  Sabine decided to study sound using his ears!  After some careful consideration, Sabine wondered if the excess reverberation that he heard in Fogg was due to furnishings rather then shape. He decided that step one was to quantify the reverberation in the Fogg Lecture room.  Since he had no loudspeakers or microphones, he chose a pipe from a pipe organ, a C tuned to 512 cycles per second (the term Hertz was not yet coined).  He then devised an air tank which could hold a significant volume of compressed air and had a special eclectically actuated valve made similar to the valves used to turn on and off a pipe in a pipe organ. He then constructed a special chronometer using a torsion pendulum to turn a cylinder at a constant rate.  He would then open the valve and the pipe would sound, and he let it sound until the volume of the sound in the room seemed constant.  He then hit the switch that both turned off the air and placed a mark on the rotating cylinder.  He then listened to the sound decaying in the room.  When he could no longer hear the sound, he would mark the cylinder.  He would repeat the test about twenty times and then take the mean of his observations.  He soon realized that these tests could only be made in the middle of the night when the ambient noise was at a minimum.  Using this laborious technique, he measured the Fogg Lecture room to have a decay time, or what he called the “duration of audibility” of 5.62 seconds. 

The Sanders Theater had cushions on the seats, the Fogg did not.  Sabine wondered if it were the cushions which were making the difference.  He removed the cushions from the Sanders and introduced them into the Fogg in very small quantities measuring the difference that each addition of cushions made to the decay time. Adding 8.2 meters worth dropped the duration of audibility to 5.33 seconds.  17 meters of cushions dropped the audibility to 4.94 seconds and so forth.

Sabine was an incredibly dedicated researcher and set very high standards for himself and all his assistants.  At one point, he realized that the clothes he wore affected the outcome.  He discarded over 6000 measurements as he felt they were corrupted by not dressing consistently.  After two years Sabine was not done with his investigations, but President Eliot had run out of patience!  He wanted results.  Sabine said that he was making progress but not ready to report on what he had found.  Eliot said, “You have made enough progress to prescribe for the Fogg Lecture Room and you are going to make that prescription!”[5]  So Sabine installed some felt drapery and made the room usable but not as good as the Sanders. 

Obviously, in this abbreviated format, we cannot tell the whole story, but it is the fact that President Eliot forced Sabine to stop his almost obsessively detailed measurements and look at the big picture that allowed Sabine to make his most significant contribution to acoustics and really lay the cornerstone for the science of acoustics. 

When Sabine was able to zoom out and look at his data he realized that when he charted the number of cushions against the audibility time, the curve was a parabola. This, in turn, resulted in his now famous formula where  RT60 is the time it takes for the sound to decay 60 decibels below its original level (what Sabine called the audibility time), .049 is a constant for imperial units, V is the volume of the room in cubic feet, S is the surface area in square feet and a is the coefficient of absorption.  The coefficient of absorption was cleverly described by Sabine as the amount of absorption created by one square foot of open window.  From the point of view of a room, an open window is the best absorber you can get.  The sound goes out of the window and does not come back!  1 sq foot of window was given a rating of 1.0 meaning 100% absorption.  All other materials have a rating of .0 to 1.0.  The unit of absorption is called the sabin after Sabine.

WC Sabine went on to consult in the design of a number of concert halls, where for the first time the architecture and choice of furnishings could be based on science rather then speculation.

Sabine died in 1919 after falling ill on a trip to Europe.  Those who knew him well could clearly see that he actually worked himself to death.  He left a wife, Jane, who was a physician, and two daughters.   The achievement of deriving an equation purely empirically, that is to say by observation only, is truly remarkable.  Sabine’s formula is still in use today as one a number of ways to calculate and predict reverberation time in buildings.


[1] Hall, Edwin H, Biographical Memoir Wallace Clement Sabine 1868-1919; National Academy of Sciences Volume XXI 1924
[2] Hall, Edwin H, Biographical Memoir Wallace Clement Sabine 1868-1919; National Academy of Sciences Volume XXI 1924
[3] First reported in the American Architect and the Engineering Record, 1900
[4] Sabine, WC; Collected Papers on Acoustics Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1922
[5] Thompson, Emily;  The Sound Scape of Modernity: architectural acoustics and the culture of listening in America 1900-1933.  MIT Press 2002.  p 37
Reviewing the DNA 10K8 Pro and DNA 3K8 Pro Amplifiers

Multi-channel amplifiers have been all the rage recently. Many of the top amplifier manufacturers have been making four and eight channel amplifiers for a while now. All of the amplifiers Danley Sound Labs offers these days are four or eight channel models. As a precursor to some exciting new information for next month, this month is going to be a quick review the DNA 10K8 Pro and DNA 3K8 Pro amplifiers.
 
The really unique thing about the DNA 10K8 Pro and DNA 3K8 Pro amplifiers is that they are four input by eight output amplifiers. This means that they offer eight channels of amplification, complete with eight output DSP channels. However, on the input side there are four input DSP’s with four inputs.
 
The inputs to the four input DSP’s can be either Analog, AES3 (only for inputs 1 and 2), Dante*, or AES76*. (*Dante and AES67 compatibility require the installation of the optional Dante card, which is only a factory fitted option.) It is important to note that while it is possible to select on a channel by channel basis what the input source is, there are only four inputs into the four input DSP’s.
 
This is a great situation for many systems which are only distributing a stereo feed to the amplifiers. Then the amplifiers are taking that stereo feed and using it to feed stereo main loudspeakers and maybe mixing it together to feed some delay loudspeakers or subwoofers. Perhaps there is a third input that is for subwoofers and a fourth input for front fill loudspeakers. This configuration clearly has many useful applications.
 
However, this configuration starts to come apart a bit when more than four inputs are required. Stay tuned for an exciting update next month that will help with this situation.
 
The current version of System Engineer is 7.01.25. This version is available for download from our website:
http://www.danleysoundlabs.com/dna-system-engineer/
The current version of firmware for the DNA 3K8 Pro, DNA 10K8 Pro, DNA 10K4 Pro, and DNA 20K4 Pro amplifiers is 1.450.
The current version of firmware for the DNA SC48 is 1.462.
Loudspeaker Master Preset Stack version is 20181025
The firmware and loudspeaker presets are included in the System Engineer download zip file for System Engineer 7.01.25.
DNA product videos can be found on our website:
http://www.danleysoundlabs.com/danley-u/dna-amplifier-and-processor-training-videos/
 

Danley Rental Gear: Got some? Need Some?
 
Got Danley gear that you would rent out to others?  Want people to know how to find you?  Go to the Danley rental page and fill out the rental submission form.  We'll add you to the map! 

Do you have a special gig coming up where you need a great Danley system but don't have all the gear you need?  It's possible that there is rental gear available in your area.  Check out the rental map on our website to find out where you can rent the Danley system of your dreams. 
 
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